عنوان مقاله [English]
During the socialization process, individuals internalize some attitudes and beliefs on social and political occasions, in line with the prevailing culture of the case. In this study, the attitude toward active political participation of women between male and female students has been examined. The sample size according to Cochran's formula is equal to 370 male and female students living in Tehran. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, simultaneous regression and Fisher's test using survey method and questionnaire technique.
Findings showed that there was no significant relationship between socio-economic status and attitudes toward women's active participation and among the variables affecting students' attitudes toward women's active political participation were variables such as a feeling of political effectiveness (women: r = 0.43 and men: r = 0.29), the existence of gender stereotypes (women: r = -0.50 and men: r = -0.35), belief in patriarchy (women: r = -0.58 and men: r = -0.37) and glass ceiling (female: r = -0.52 and men:r = -0.34) showed the most effect and gender analysis emphasized the effect of the mentioned cases among female students more than male students. The low presence of women in politics can be due to political socialization, which has seen politics as masculine and marginalized women.
Political Participation, Gender Sociability, Gender Stereotypes, Glass Ceiling, Sense of Political Effectiveness.
The existence of political participation in any society indicates development, and each society shows its level of development according to the credibility and degree it gives to the presence and activity of women, but in reality, women achieve equal positions with men in various fields. Social and political are facing serious obstacles (Pishgahi Fard, Zahedi, 2018: 26). Although in recent decades there have been changes in women's social and political relations and along with increasing literacy and the development of higher education, empowerment, and women's demands have increased, the level of women's political participation is low (Nazari, 2014: 162 ). Aronson (2002) believes that growing up in a traditional society leads to the acceptance of most prejudices. A group of women consider social participation and presence in social and political arenas necessary and a group of women do not prioritize social participation and in line with their traditional status and context, they define preference around their family. Social structures create positive or negative attitudes toward participation in individuals and influence actors through the family institution, the educational institution, the social learning process, and the socialization process. In some cases, the existence of gender stereotypes, under the shadow of patriarchy, perpetuates a kind of glass ceiling and creates an obstacle to women's activities. Individuals act to prevent social exclusion within the framework of social norms based on their gender stereotypes (Ezazi, 2001: 45 and 46). In the divisions of social forces, women are consciously or unconsciously marginalized and their growth and development is considered insignificant to others. This process affects women in all social and political spheres and indicates the existence of a kind of glass ceiling and prevents the advancement of women according to implicit and unwritten agreements (Wirth, 2002: 2). The glass ceiling is defined as a metaphor for the inequality of women against men and implies a patriarchal monopoly in developing countries (Shafi et al., 2019).
The main purpose of this study is to "examine students' attitudes toward women's active political participation" between the two groups of female and male students. Students are considered as a group that has a higher social status and are more influential in political and social affairs. This research has investigated students' attitudes using a survey method. After collecting information by processing and entering the data into the computer and using SPSS software, statistical activities were analyzed at the descriptive and inferential levels of research findings. The statistical population of this study includes students of Tehran, Allameh, Al-Zahra, Imam Sadegh, Tarbiat Modares, and research universities who lived in Tehran. After taking the variance in the pre-test stage, using Cochran's sampling formula, 370 students were systematically selected and by proportionality, 205 female and 165 male students living in Tehran were examined.
According to the results of the social and economic status of female students has a higher average than male students. In the simultaneous regression model, social and economic status, sense of political effectiveness, belief in patriarchy, belief in the glass ceiling and gender stereotypes as predictor variables and attitudes toward women's active political participation entered the equation as criterion variables. Aiming to compare male and female students, first using Fisher's conversion to compare multiple correlation coefficients, the findings indicate that there is a significant difference between male and female students. A comparison of predictor variables also shows that in both groups of male and female students, feelings of political effectiveness, belief in patriarchy, belief in the glass ceiling, and the existence of gender stereotypes can predict attitudes toward women's active political participation. But the social and economic situation is not able to predict the attitude towards women's active political participation. A comparison of standardized regression coefficients shows that belief in patriarchy and belief in the glass ceiling in female students has a higher coefficient than in male students. The presence of gender stereotypes has a higher coefficient in men and there is no difference in the standardized regression coefficient in the sense of political effectiveness. Based on this, the main hypothesis of the present study is confirmed. This means that the variables of a feeling of political effectiveness, belief in patriarchy, belief in the glass ceiling and the existence of gender stereotypes can predict attitudes towards women's active political participation. A comparison of groups shows a significant difference in the explained variance between groups. In the women's group, predictor variables play a greater role in explaining attitudes toward women's active political participation. For women, the belief in patriarchy and the existence of a glass ceiling has the greatest impact, and for men, the belief in patriarchy and the existence of gender stereotypes have the greatest impact on a positive attitude towards women's active political participation.
The results of the study emphasize that students' attitudes are overshadowed by the culture of patriarchy and the existence of gender stereotypes, and this issue is not different between male and female students, although female students have more understanding and experience. Despite benefiting from the socio-economic status, students still follow the previous conditions and have not shown a change in their attitude towards women's active political participation and attending university has not created a positive attitude towards women's active political participation. Today, due to the expansion of higher education, women have a maximum presence in universities, but contrary to expectations, they do not show active political participation and have shown a minimal share. According to the research conducted in this field (Sadeghi Fasaei, 2015), women's participation in all fields not only does not have a systematic body and model but is also influenced by the discourse space of the ruling structure. Although women have become an influential and active force in the past, structural and social barriers and pressures to create a glass ceiling due to the hegemonic layers of power acceptance continue (Shafi, 2019: 1) and it can’t be hoped that students due to the base that Are leading to positive changes in this area.