عنوان مقاله [English]
Delinquency is one of the problems of adolescence that can cause disruption of social order and serious problems for the individual, family, and community, and several factors are involved in its occurrence. This study aimed to predict multidimensional delinquency based on emotional development and thought suppression and to investigate the role of gender moderation. The research method was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population included all high school students in Kashan in the academic year 2020-2021, of which 90 students were studied by the convenience sampling method. Data collection with multidimensional delinquency questionnaires (Sahami et al., 1396), emotional development (Singh and Bahargawa, 1974), and the White Bear Suppression Inventory (Wegner and Zanakas, 1994). Results of Simultaneous-entry regression analysis showed that both the variables of emotional development (β=0.45) and thought suppression (β=0.24) can predict multidimensional delinquency in adolescents. The role of gender in the relationship between emotional development and thought suppression and delinquency were also confirmed; This means that the effect of these two variables on delinquency is different in girls and boys, and in boys, it predicts 36% of thought suppression and 41% of emotional deprivation of delinquency, and in girls, it predicts 49% of delinquency. It should be noted that the thought suppression variable in the group of girls was not able to predict multidimensional delinquency. Finally, by taking advantage of these results and providing training on strengthening emotional development and adaptive strategies to deal with stress and tension, a big step can be taken to reduce delinquency in adolescents.
Multidimensional Delinquency, Emotional Maturity, Thought Suppression, Gender.
Nowadays, delinquency and behavioural disorders have become the most important issues in the field of youth and adolescents (Kouhbanani nejad & Sanatkhah, 2019) and many factors are effective in its occurrence, but one of the main dimensions that have a profound effect on other aspects is the psychological dimension (Dadsetan, 2011). Emotional maturity is one of these psychological assets (Rafidali, 2017) which refers to the ability to facilitate and guide emotional desires to achieve the desired goals (Yousef et al., 2011) and since delinquency usually follows a kind of emotional turmoil; This structure, which helps people to manage emotions and make appropriate decisions and actions, can also reduce the likelihood of delinquent behaviour (Firoozi, 2017(.
On the other hand, suppression of thoughts is one of the coping styles of individuals to regulate emotions and thoughts (Spada and Wells, 2005) and in that person seeks to remove undesirable thoughts; But psychological evidence suggests that this practice can lead to increased self-criticism, anxiety, and anxiety, as well as a greater tendency toward norm-breaking behaviours following unsuccessful attempts to suppress thoughts.
In addition, the findings of some studies indicate that there are gender differences in committing crimes such as substance abuse, alcohol, etc. (Picoito et al., 2019), so it is important to pay attention to the issue of gender in the study of deviant and delinquent behaviours. Finally, considering the importance of identifying the causes and roots of delinquency and considering the contradictory results regarding gender differences in the occurrence of delinquent behaviours, the present study seeks to answer the question of whether emotional maturity and the tendency to suppress the ability to predict multidimensional delinquency in adolescents has it? And does gender play a moderating role in this regard?.
The present study was a descriptive correlational study and its statistical population included all high school students in Kashan in the academic year 1400-99, of which 90 (45 girls and 45 boys) (based on Fidell and Tabachnick formulas) were sampled. Data was collected by multidimensional delinquency questionnaires (Sahami et al., 2017), Emotional Maturity Scale (Singh and Bahargawa, 1991) and White Bear Suppression Inventory (Wegner & Zanakos, 1994) in two sections of a descriptive and inferential model (simultaneous regression) SPSS22 software was analyzed.
The results of regression analysis showed that predictor variables predict a total of 35% of delinquency variance in adolescents. Regarding the role of gender, the results of regression analysis showed that in the group of girls, only emotional maturity (β = 0.49) and in the group of boys, both variables of emotional maturity (β = 0.41) and suppression of thoughts (β = 0.36) were significantly delinquent. Predicts. The resulting coefficients of explanation also show that in the regression equation, in the group of boys, the research variables are explained as a total of 45% and in girls, 30% of the variance of delinquency.
The results of this study showed the significant role of emotional maturity and thought suppression in predicting delinquency. Regarding the prediction of emotional maturity, it can be said that since in the phenomenon of delinquency, inability to control impulse and extreme tendency to express undesirable emotions are seen as significant symptoms, this can indicate emotional immaturity in the person and his weakness in management. Correct positive and negative emotions. The adult behaves emotionally by accepting social values and norms, does not act under the flow of irresponsible emotions, does not waste his energy and time on imaginary problems, and has characteristics such as self-control, kindness, empathy, cooperation, tolerance, and emotional stability (Segal and Sawhney, 2018). Thus, emotional deprivation in this way can reduce the tendency of delinquency in individuals.
Regarding thought suppression, research has shown that in crimes such as substance abuse, alcohol, and smoking, despite the person's efforts to stay away from thoughts related to this behaviour, especially when there are certainly motivating factors, these thoughts still invade their minds. Suppression of thought increases physiological activity, activates negative needs and emotions in the individual and impairs inhibitory control (Purdon, 2020). As a person loses control of his or her control, he or she is more likely to engage in immoral and delinquent behaviours following thoughts about it.
In examining the role of gender, the findings showed that in girls only the variable of emotional maturity and in boys both variables of emotional maturity and suppression of thoughts can predict delinquency. Explaining this result, it can be said that in girls, emotional maturity and emotional management and the ability to delay needs - rather than suppressing thoughts - have a greater effect on reducing the tendency to delinquency. On the other hand, more communication between girls and their emotional expression can cause emotional exhaustion, and expressing their thoughts and mental concerns with others can in turn prevent them from being repressed. Also, thinking and consulting with others can be an alternative to inappropriate strategies- including expressing violence, breaking the law, smoking, etc.- against negative thoughts and feelings.