نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 (نویسنده مسئول) استادیار و عضو گروه جامعه شناسی،واحد کرمان،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،کرمان،ایران email@example.com
2 استادیار و عضو گروه مدیریت ،واحد کرمان،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،کرمان،ایران firstname.lastname@example.org
3 استادیار و عضو گروه مدیریت ،واحد کرمان،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،کرمان،ایران email@example.com
عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aim: Today, with the entry of women into various social, economic and even political spheres, their sense of security has become especially important for governments. The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning and interpretation of women (students) of the roots and consequences of the feeling of security in the city of Kerman.Method: The present study is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of method, qualitative and based on the foundation data approach. The participants of the study are 30 female students of Kerman Azad University who have been selected according to theoretical saturation and using the purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interviews have been used as data collection tools. To achieve the reliability criterion, three methods have been used: control or validation by members, analytical comparisons and the use of audit techniques. Findings: According to the findings, economic insecurity, the subculture of insult and vulgarity, gender-discriminatory notions, institutionalization of profanity culture as causal factors, intergenerational conflicts, environmental-spatial insecurity, police performance as underlying factors, peace in the family, judicial and legal security as interfering factors and changing discriminatory judicial attitudes toward women, culture-building of clothing patterns as strategies, and socio-psychological disintegration and frustration have been identified as consequences. Conclusion: Women's sense of security is formed under the influence of various social factors, but these factors are formed in interaction with culturally discriminatory perceptions and the performance of institutions and organizations that protect women's security.
Background and aim: Today, on the one hand, women have entered the modern world, have a special place in social relations and relationships, and by entering various social, economic and even political areas, their sense of security has become particularly important for governments. The present study aims to understand the meaning and interpretation of women's sense of security in the city of Kerman to provide a model and produce theoretical knowledge for education and research for policymakers and also provide a scientific basis for future security studies. Method: The present study is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of method; it is qualitative and based on the data approach of the foundation. The statistical population includes all female students of Kerman Azad University in 1400. The participants of the study are 30 female students who have been selected according to theoretical saturation and using the purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools. The interview time was between 60 and 100 minutes and the satisfaction of the participants regarding the answers to the questions and the interview was the main condition for conducting the interview. Finally, they were analyzed using fixed comparisons and theoretical coding (open, axial, and selective coding). To achieve the reliability criterion, three methods: control or validation by members, analytical comparisons and the use of audit techniques were used. The data are analyzed according to the procedure based on grounded theory in three stages of open coding, selective and selective (pivotal). According to the findings of the research participants, the feeling of economic insecurity with subcategories (inefficient economic management, unsafe job environments and welfare restrictions for women), subculture of insult and bullying with subcategories (an offensive subculture of insulting and the experience of aggression and insult), gender-discriminatory notions with subcategories (sex discrimination, discriminatory gender laws and insecurity due to gender discrimination), police security accountability with subcategories (police as women's security guard, women's civil rights, inadequate security structure of old neighbourhoods) have been identified as the most important causal factors. Categories of intergenerational conflicts with subcategories (intergenerational conflict of officials with women and intergenerational conflict of parents with women), management of women's urban space with subcategories (urban space, environmental-urban insecurity, insecurity in using transportation) and police performance, which is characterized by sub-categories (trust in police and missions) are identified as the underlying conditions in the investigation. Of course, intervening conditions that include peace in the family context with sub-categories (peace, family values) and a sense of security in urban spaces with sub-categories (safe traffic, safe recreation and safe urban space) along with a sense of judicial and legal security with the following categories (women's citizenship rights, legal protection, security in women's participation) are identified and are very important.
Based on the participants' interpretation of the research strategies with the main categories of changing the discriminatory judicial attitude with sub-categories (police judicial support for women, follow-up and protection, security and judicial shortcomings) and paving the way for women's participation with sub-categories (covering patterns and participatory bedding) are identified. Consequences of feeling insecure for women by the main categories of socio-psychological disintegration (with sub-categories: family disintegration, personal disintegration and instrumental view of women) and socio-psychological frustration (with sub-categories of aggression and corruption against women and feelings of emptiness and frustration) have been identified in this research. In the present research, based on the research process and the obtained data, as well as exploratory categories in the stage called selective coding, "judicial-security support for women" as a core category that can analyze the process of understanding and interpreting women in Kerman regarding the feeling of social security is considered. Based on this category, the participants' interpretation of the study is that unfortunately in the economic field, women are faced with "inefficient economic management" by the authorities, which has brought them a "feeling of economic insecurity". Difficulties in finding a decent job combined with a gender perspective on employment for women have led to "unsafe job environments" that have forced them to accept "jobs including shopkeepers in shops and secretarial in commercial and non-commercial establishments".And unfortunately, many security issues have arisen in these environments that require extensive security-judicial support for women. On the other hand, the "subculture of insult and vulgarity" that exists for women in some urban environments and spaces of Kerman is tied to "gender discriminatory notions" and in the opinion of the participants, some "gender discriminatory laws" have encouraged it. Although many of them consider the existing laws in the society as discriminatory laws, in the Iranian constitution, many values are considered for women.
Those women have rights such as dowry as well as retribution, this law does not apply to women even in developed countries that claim equal rights for women. Women in our country can receive a salary from men in the form of financial and economic wages for the number of years they have lived in their husband's house or the number of years they have breastfed their children, and this is carefully implemented in our society. Women's sense of security is formed under the influence of various social, cultural, economic and security factors, but these factors are formed in interaction with discriminatory cultural perceptions and the performance of institutions and organizations that protect women's security. The government can take appropriate measures to increase women's sense of security by enacting laws to protect women's rights, especially in the face of street harassment and law enforcement forces, through initiatives such as gathering thugs.