نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 نویسندۀ مسئول. استادیار جامعه شناسی، گروه مدیریت فرهنگی و رسانه، دانشکدۀ فرهنگ و ارتباطات ، دانشگاه سوره firstname.lastname@example.org
2 کارشناس ارشد تبلیغ و ارتباطات، دانشگاه سورهfaramndeh@gmail.com
عنوان مقاله [English]
self-objectification is one of the women issues that has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In the present study, using the theory of McKinley and Hyde (1996) and a quantitative survey method, the relationship between the impact of cosmetics advertising and self-objectification in women aged 18 to 35 years in Tehran has been investigated. In order to collect data, a questionnaire consisting of Kwan, Ahmad and Ahmad (2019) questionnaire and McKinley and Hyde (1996) questionnaire was used to measure the effectiveness of cosmetics advertising and was used to self-objectification, respectively. The statistical sample was determined 270 people using “SPSS Sample Power” software and the convenience sampling method was used. To analyze the data, one-sample t-test, simple regression coefficient and also Hayes Process model (to measure the effect of moderator variables) were used. The results of data analysis show that the effect of cosmetics advertising variable is considered as a suitable or moderate level predictor variable for the self-objectification variable and its two components of body surveillance and body shame. The coefficient of correlation was determined at 0.50, 0.54 and 0.48, respectively. This coefficient is negative and significant for the component of body control belief and is equal to 0.18. The variables of mother education and socio-economic status have a moderating role in the relationship between the two main variables of research.
Women’s self-objectification, cosmetic advertisement, Body Surveillance, Body shame, Body control belief
The objectified image of women and how this image is shaped, as an issue in the field of women studies, has been considered by scholars in recent decades. The emergence of an objectified image of women results in a reduction of women to their bodies (Bartkey, 1990). Following these researches, the concept of women's self-objectification was formed later. self-objectification refers to the state in which women internalize the objectified cultural perspectives of society (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Research shows that the media also have an important role in the internalization of this objectified image. Commercial advertising also plays a role in fueling this issue (Harper & Tigmann, 2008). Self-objectification can have adverse individual and social effects.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the situation of women aged 18-35 years living in Tehran in terms of self-image scale and also the scale of impact of cosmetic advertising in the first stage and to investigate the intensity and type of relationship between these two variables in the second stage. Another purpose of this study is to measure the effect of moderator variables on modulating the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
The method of this research is survey and the statistical population is women between 18- and 35-years old living in Tehran. The sample size is 270 which is calculated using "spss sample power" software, taking into account alpha 05% and 95% confidence level as well as Beta error size 20 % And 80% test power and 15% detectable effect size and the research hypotheses to be one-tailed. Also, the sampling method was convenience sampling. In order to collect data, a questionnaire consisting of Kwan, Ahmed and Ahmad (2019) questionnaire and McKinley and Hyde (1996) questionnaire was used to measure the impact of cosmetics advertising was self-objectification, respectively. The research data was collected by sending an online questionnaire created in the “Google Form” space. To analyze the data, one-sample t-test, regression coefficient and also Hayes method (to measure the effect of moderator variables) were used. The validity of the study was calculated as face validity and the value of reliability was determined by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
Data analysis showed that in the impact of cosmetics advertisement variable, the average of the statistical sample (20.27) is slightly less than the middle of the scale, which is equal to 21. The significance of one sample t-test confirmed that the average was lower than the mean of the scale in the statistical population too. Also, the average score of the respondents in the self-image variable was 53.6, which is less than the middle of the scale (59). The t-test confirmed the same situation in the statistical population.
The second part of the data analysis showed that the independent variable of the study affects the dependent variable (female self-objectification) and its three components. The magnitude of the coefficient of correlation (R) on the variable of self-objectification was 0.50 and on the components of body surveillance and body shame were 0.546 and 0.48, respectively, which showed the independent variable has an explanatory power at a moderate level. Also, the standard beta mark (Beta) is positive and indicates that with increasing the score cosmetics advertising impact, the level of female self-objectification and the two components mentioned increases. However, concerning the body control belief component, the size of the coefficient of correlation is at a weak level (R = 0.181) and the standard beta sign is negative. In other words, as the impact of cosmetics advertising increases, the “belief in body control” decreases. The analysis of the coefficient of determination (R-square) shows that 25.7% of the variance of objectification overlaps with the variance of the impact of cosmetics advertising.
The third part of the findings is related to the moderator variables (education, father's education, mother's education, religious affiliation, socioeconomic status and marriage) which were measured using Hayes regression model. Findings indicate that in the 3 models, the moderator variable moderated the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. The socioeconomic status has slightly modified the effect of the independent variable on the belief in the “body control belief” component. In other words, as the level of socioeconomic status increases, the effect of the independent variable on “belief in body control” decreases slightly. Another moderator variable is “mother education” whose interactive effect with the independent variable on the component of “physical shame” and self-objectification is significant. In both cases, the variable has adjusted the relationship of the independent variable to the dependent variable in a negative direction.
The study concluded that although there is no precise and agreed criterion for judging the current status of women in the statistical population-based on self-objectification scales and the Impact of cosmetics advertising variables. However, considering the cultural planning in official institutions over the past decades, the current situation does not seem to be very satisfactory and shows the impact of secular culture and non-genuine values on young women.
The growing use of cyberspace by young people, especially social networks and satellite facilities, has made the spread and dominance of “informal culture” tangible, and the female community is interacting with the various effects of this type of advertisement. This Advertisement not only increases the consumption of cosmetics and goods but also changes the “self-image” of the person, consciously or unconsciously. Given the ineffectiveness of the variable of religious affiliation in this regard, it seems that the personality, intellectual and emotional complexities of individuals in today's social conditions, which results from complex experiences and social interactions, go beyond the dualistic perspective in stereotyped divisions; and as in the case of traditional society, the usual divisions based on the impact of religious affiliation on social behaviour cannot be imagined. Mothers' education can be influential in this regard by influencing socialization practices. The findings of this study are consistent with the findings of Aflak Sir and Ebrahimi (2014), Swami et al. (2010), Thompson and Stormer (1995) and Benzer (2002).
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