عنوان مقاله [English]
With the growth of societies, women nowadays are much more involved in organizations and jobs than ever before and influential and active workforce. Although there has been a lot of progress in the presence of women over the past, the structural and social barriers and pressures to create a glass ceiling for women continue to this day. The purpose of this research is the interpretive model of glass ceiling consequences a based on Power Transition (Hegemonic) acceptance by Analysis Interpretive Ranking Process (IRP). In this research, to identify the components (consequences of glass ceiling) and research propositions (hegemonic of power acceptance), a combined analysis was performed with the participation of 15 management experts at the university level and In the quantitative part, the components and propositions identified in the form of matrix questionnaires were evaluated by 22 managers, officials and experts at different levels of the National Iranian Petroleum Products Distribution Company. The results showed that the hegemonic proposition of acceptance of power based on culture is considered as the most effective layer of acceptance of power in the studied organizations, which strengthens the outcome of disorder/conflict between roles in women working in the National Iranian Petroleum Products Distribution Company. This result shows that cultural authoritarianism has prevented women from gaining much of a position in the top positions of the organization because in general, patriarchal structures, due to the cultural acceptance of society, have placed the most important organizational positions in the hands of men and this culturally promotes values in which the distance between the position at the top and the bottom of the organization determines the limits of respect and social status for individuals,
and culturally, men are often established in this position.
Power Transition (Hegemonic) Acceptance, Glass Ceiling Consequences, Interpretive Ranking Process (IRP)
The glass ceiling metaphor was first coined in 1985 by the editor E. G. Bryant who spoke out about the inequalities of working women. The term was then used by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt in their highly influential Wall Street Journal article the following year. Since then, the existence and durability of the glass ceiling have been recognized by national and international institutions, such as the European Union (Janadleh and Pouya, 2020). The union defines the glass ceiling as an invisible barrier that stems from a complex set of structures in men's organizations that prevents women from reaching higher positions. Digging into the Global Gender Gap Index (202) provides an overview of the current state of the global gender gap and efforts and insights to reduce it. According to a recent World Economic Forum report, the gender gap in the world has narrowed slightly from last year, but it will take 5.99 years to achieve full equality, assuming it maintains its current pace. Among the four sub-indicators of the global gender gap, the political empowerment gap has the highest score, followed by the sub-indicators of opportunities and economic participation. Iran is the 148th country in the world in terms of the global index of the gender gap, whose performance has decreased by 6 steps compared to the previous year. Iran has the lowest gender gap in the sub-indicators of health and survival and access to educational facilities and the highest gender gap in the sub-indicators of political empowerment and economic opportunity and participation (Karimi Dastnaei, 2020). Statistics show that this metaphor is particularly appropriate because, despite fair laws and policies at the national and organizational levels, women still face an invisible barrier that prevents them from achieving career advancement (Aksoy et al, 2019). One of the most influential factors in strengthening the glass ceiling is the existence of a hierarchy of power that has been institutionalized in the form of bureaucratic values which leads to gender discrimination. The question of this research is whether glass ceilings are reduced by the existence of hegemonic layers of power acceptance? To answer this question, we must first understand the hegemony of power acceptance. The word hegemony means the influence and hegemony of a powerful group in any society. Social institutions are under the hegemonic structures (Power Transition Hegemony) that retain power in the form of protecting the interests of stakeholders. This causes the organizations to lose their effectiveness. Considering the strategies and policies under the approved bylaws such as the protection of the status and rights of women, mutual respect, justice in promotion, and due to the lack of equality in distribution of positions between both sexes in National Iranian Petroleum Products Distribution company, researchers conducted this research to address this inequality. According to the 2020 statistics from the head office of the NIPPD company, 25% of employees are women while only 6% of women hold management positions. Since most of the top management positions in the oil industry are occupied by men, this study investigates the barriers to women’s presence in the headquarters of this company according to glass ceiling theories and gender stereotypes. Besides, this study aims to design an interpretive model of the consequences of a glass ceiling based on the existence of hegemonic layers of power acceptance.
This research uses the mixed data type to identify the consequential components of the glass ceiling and hegemonic propositions of power acceptance. Polar matrix analysis is used to examine the most important consequences of a glass ceiling as well. In addition, Interpretive prioritization analysis (IRP) (Sushil, 2009) centers the analysis in this study.
Based on the results, the hegemony of power based on culture is the most influential layer of power in the NIPPD. Each outcome of the glass ceiling was weighted, with the identification of the most influential hegemony regarding the acquisition of power. The results also showed that the first consequence is disruption between women's roles in organizational positions with other internal and external roles.
The most prominent layer of power acceptance hegemony over the presence of women is the hegemony of power based on culture. This means that cultural authoritarianism, one of the components of Hofstede's theory, has prevented women from holding high positions in NIPPD. Patriarchal structures have appointed the most important organizational positions to men, which leads to the distance between upper and lower positions and determines the limits of respect and social status for individuals. This traditional and legal basis for power acceptance leads to pressure from a glass ceiling, which puts women in serious role conflict and frustration, that is, power originates from masculinity in the structures of the company. And most importantly, inter-role disorder, the most important consequence of the glass ceiling in line with the theory of job conflict, puts women under psychological pressures. These conflicts will affect other roles so that women will face work and family contradictions. This is all about the existence of a gap between expectations and unreasonable power at the top of organizational structures. On the other hand, from the socio-theoretical perspective and concerning the interplay of multiple roles of women inside and outside the organization, conflict turns into a phenomenon that extends to other roles of women in society. In this case, the role of women as employees conflicts with their role as members of the family or members of society, which is known as the work-family conflict.
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