نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه مطالعات فرهنگی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائیarmin.firstname.lastname@example.org
2 دکتری جامعهشناسی فرهنگی، گروه مدیریت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان) نویسنده مسئول: email@example.com
عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study aims to measure the social happiness of Isfahan women based on their socioeconomic status. Research is based on a quantitative approach and the data gathering tool is a two-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information and social happiness scale. For measuring social happiness, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used. The research sample is 395 citizens aged 15 to 65 years in 15 Isfahan urban areas in 2019-2020, which were selected through a multistage cluster sampling method. The results indicate that the level of social happiness in women is significantly below the average (p < 0.05). The results of the analysis of variance show that mean differences of some social happiness factors such as satisfaction with life, sociability/empathy, positive outlook, well-being, and self-esteem are significant based on socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). Furthermore, social satisfaction varies between the classes such that the lower average is related to the lower class, and the upper class is correlated with the highest. Moreover, among the classes, social happiness varies such that the lowest average is linked to the lower class, and the upper class is related to the highest average. Overall, we find that the socioeconomic status and age of women in Isfahan have the power to predict social happiness.
Social Happiness, Women, Socio-Economic Status, Isfahan
Social happiness is considered as one of the significant components of social welfare and development in recent decades and social happiness has found a special place in the literature of development and social and welfare policies (Moradi & Hezarjaribi, 2019: 40). It is a noticeable index to evaluate the performance of the social and cultural system. To put it another way, happiness as a crucial social variable is an index of the development and progress of societies. The principal productive forces of societies are people, and women, who shape one-half of society's population, play a special role in enhancing society's capabilities. Recent and new studies on social research focus on women's happiness, both mentally and physically. One of the new research areas in social studies is to promote vitality and provide solutions to improve women’s happiness. Due to the necessity of this important variable in advancing social goals, it becomes more prominent progressively (Anbari & Haghi, 2013: 22).
1-What is the level of social happiness in different classes (upper, middle, and lower) among female citizens of Isfahan city?
2- Does the level of social vitality of Isfahan female citizens differ based on their socio-economic status?
3- What is the role of demographic characteristics (age, social class, and privilege of the place of residence) in predicting the social happiness of Isfahan female citizens?
Research in terms of type is quantitative (descriptive, survey). The data gathering tool is a two-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information and social happiness factors. For measuring social happiness, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), Hills and Argyle (2002), was used with seven elements. The study sample consisted of 395 people aged 15 to 65 years in 15 Isfahan urban areas 2019-2020, using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Social happiness was examined in the lower, middle, and upper classes. Class stratification was carried out based on the socio-economic status index which is consistent with Max Weber's stratification theory.
Findings and Results
The results indicate that the mean of the social happiness variable and all its dimensions were significantly lower than the hypothetical mean. This means that the level of social happiness and its dimensions are lower than average among women living in Isfahan. It is noteworthy that the highest average factor of social happiness and its dimensions are allocated to the upper class (with an average of 2.9), then the middle class (2.81), and finally the lower class (with an average of 2.66), respectively. According to the socio-economic bases, the mean difference in social happiness and life satisfaction dimensions, empathy, positive outlook, well-being, and self-esteem were significant however the lowest average is related to the low socio-economic base, followed by the highest position in the middle economic base and finally the high socio-economic base. Also, the relationship between socio-economic status and social happiness was reported to be positive and significant. Accordingly, with the increase of women's socio-economic status, social happiness increases by 0.211 units. Statistical analyzes showed that age has a significant and negative relationship with social happiness. Consequently, social happiness decreases by -0.142 units when the age increases, and finally, the education variable is removed from the model due to the inability to predict social happiness.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the results of the present study, it seems that providing opportunities for women's happiness by enhancing their mental and social skills is important and noteworthy. Furthermore, grounding for developing equal and lively presence of women in society in the form of cultural, social, political, and financial partnerships is important and noteworthy. And yet this is achievable by bridging class gaps and providing for the promotion of the socio-economic bases of the society by breaking down patriarchal, discriminatory, and gender-based structures. It seems that the gap between the realities and the real demands of women can be reduced by notifying women of their citizenship rights and their rights towards each other, and informing and obliging governmental and non-governmental organizations to observe equal citizenship rights of this group. This can, in turn, increase their happiness in society.
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