رضایت از زندگی دانشجویان: پیش بینی بر اساس دینداری، معنا در زندگی و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد ، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی عمومی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد روانشاسی عمومی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر یک مطالعه رابطه‌ای از نوع همبستگی بر روی دانشجویان دختر خوابگاهی (مقطع کارشناسی) دانشگاه لرستان در سال 96-1395 است. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول مورگان 200 نفر و به صورت نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای مورد استفاده شامل پرسشنامه‌های رضایت از زندگی دینر و همکاران، دینداری گلاک و استارک، معنا در زندگی استیگر و همکاران و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی دنیس و وندروال بود. داده‌ها با استفاده از شاخص‌های آمار توصیفی و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل رگرسیون گام به گام و با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد بین دینداری(0001/0>P، 543/r=)، معنا در زندگی(0001/0>P، 673/r=) و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی(0001/0>P، 488/r=) با رضایت از زندگی همبستگی مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد(0001/0>P). یافته‌های حاصل از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به روش گام به گام نیز نشان داد که متغیرهای دینداری(0001/0>P، 313/β=)، معنا در زندگی(0001/0>P، 476/β=) و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی(0001/0>P، 241/β=) پیش‌بینی کننده معنی داری برای رضایت از زندگی دانشجویان هستند. با توجه به اهمیت نقش دینداری، معنا در زندگی و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی در پیش بینی رضایت از زندگی دانشجویان و در نتیجه سلامت و بهداشت روان دانشجویان، باید این سازه سلامت روانی یعنی رضایت از زندگی در برنامه‌ریزی‌های مسئولان و روان‌شناسان مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Students' Satisfaction of life: Prediction based on religiosity, Meaning in Life and Cognitive Flexibility

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Sadeghi 1
  • Fatemeh Imeni 2
  • fatemeh Bavazin 3
1 Associate professor, Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Msc in Psychology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Msc in Psychology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study is a relational study of the correlational type. The study population included all female students (undergraduate) living in a dormitory at the University of Lorestan in 2016-17. Sample size consisted of 200 individuals, who were selected based on Krejcie and Morgan table through simple random sampling. Some instruments including Life satisfaction by Diener, Emmons, Larsen and Griffin (1985), Religiosity questionnaire by Stark and Glock (1965), Meaning in life by Steger, Frazier, Oishi and Kaler (2006) and Dennis and Vander Wal’s Cognitive Flexibility (2010) questionnaire were used for the

 
 purpose of collecting data. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation, multiple regression analysis and applying SPSS. The results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between Religiosity (r=0/543, p<0/0001), Meaning in life (r=0/673, p<0/0001) and Cognitive Flexibility (r=0/488, P<0/0001) and Life satisfaction (P<0/0001) and the results of multiple regression analysis in a stepwise manner, showed that Religiosity (β=0/313, p<0/0001) and Meaning in life (β=0/476, p<0/0001) and Cognitive Flexibility (β =0/241, P<0/0001) are significant predictors of Life satisfaction among students. Considering the importance of the role of religiosity, meaning in life and cognitive flexibility in predicting students’ satisfaction and therefore their mental health, this mental health structure; namely life satisfaction, should be taken into consideration in the planning and programming by the authorities and psychologists.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Life satisfaction
  • Religiosity
  • Meaning in life
  • Cognitive Flexibility
  • Students

احمدی، خدابخش؛ آزاد مرزآبادی، اسفندیار و ملا زمانی، علی.(1384). بررسی وضعیت ازدواج و سازگاری زناشویی در بین کارکنان سپاه. مجله طب نظامی، 7(2): 141-152.

بخشی پور رودسری، عباس. (1387). رابطه رضایت از زندگی، سبک مسئله گشایی و نگرش مذهبی با سلامت روانی، فصلنامه روانشناسی دانشگاه تبریز، 3(9): 19-1.

بی تا، محدثه.، جعفری هرندی، رضا. (1397). پیش بینی رضایت از زندگی بر اساس ویژگی‌های شخصیتی و مکانیسم‌های دفاعی، مجله مطالعات اجتماعی روان­شناختی زنان، 16(1): 150-111.

زارع، بیژن.، صفیاری جعفر آباد، هاجر. (1394). مطالعه­ی روابطه­ی عوامل موثر بر میزان رضایت از زندگی زناشویی در بین  زنان و مردان متاهل شهر تهران، مجله مطالعات اجتماعی روان­شناختی زنان، 13(1): 11-140.

سالاری، سوسن.، روشن، رسول و مقدسین، مریم. (1395). پنج عامل بزرگ شخصیت و مکانیسم­های دفاعی در پیش‌بینی کیفیت زندگی زنان دارای اختلال بدکاری جنسی. پژوهش­های علوم رفتاری و شناختی، 5(1): 37-50.

شاکری نیا، ایرج. (1389). رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی و معنا داری زندگی با سلامت روان در زنان قربانی همسرآزاری، زن و بهداشت، 1(2): 66-47.

غباری بناب، باقر؛ متولی پور، عباس؛ حکیمی راد، الهام و حبیبی عسکر آبادی، مجتبی. (1388).  رابطه اضطراب و افسردگی با میزان معنویت در دانشجویان دانشگاه تهران. مجله روان­شناسی کاربردی، 3(2): 110-123.

غلامی، مریم؛ پاشا، غلامرضا؛ سودانی، منصور. (1388). اثربخشی آموزش معنا درمانی گروهی برامید به زندگی و سلامت عمومی بیماران دختر تالاسمی. مجله دانش و پژوهش در روانشناسی کاربردی، 42، 45-25.

کشاورز، امیر؛ مهرابی، حسینعلی و سلطانی زاده، محمد. (1388). پیش‌بینی کننده­های روانشناختی رضایت از زندگی. روانشناسی تحولی، 22،159-168.

مرعشی، سید علی؛ محرابیان، طاهره و مسلمان، مهسا. (1395). بررسی رابطه ویژگی­های شخصیتی و هوش معنوی با رضایت از زندگی در کارکنان یک شرکت صنعتی در ایلام. علوم مراقبتی نظامی، 3(1): 48-55.

نصیری، حبیب اله و جوکار، بهرام. (1387). معناداری زندگی، امید، رضایت از زندگی و سلامت روان در زنان. مجله پژوهش زنان، 6(2): 157-176.

هادیان فر، حبیب. (1384). احساس ذهنی بهزیستی و فعالیت­های مذهبی در گروهی از مسلمانان، روانپزشکی و روانشناسی بالینی ایران (اندیشه و رفتار)، 11(2): 224-232.

 

Ahmadi, Kh., Azad Marzabadi, E. and Mullah Zamani, Ali. (2005). This is the Internet version of the Internet and the Internet version of the User's Guide. Soccer Military Medicine, 7 (2):141-152  (Text in Persian).

Allport, G. W. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bakhshi Pour Rudsari, A. (2008). Relationship between life satisfaction, problem solving style and religious attitude with mental health, Journal of Psychology Tabriz University, 3(9): 1-9(Text in Persian).

Beta, M., Jafari Harandi, R. (2018). Life satisfaction prediction based on personality traits and defense mechanisms, Journal of Social Psychological Studies of Women, 16(1): 150-111(Text in Persian).

Brown, P. H. and Tierney, B. (2009), Religion and Subjective Well-Being among Elderly in China, Journal of Socio-Economics, 38, pp 310-319.  

Burton, N.W., Pakenham, K.I. and Brown, W.J. (2010). Feasibility and effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training: A pilot study of the READY program. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 15(3): 266-277. DOI: 10.1080/13548501003758710.

 Cho, E.H., Lee, D.G., Lee, G. H., Hoon Bae, B. and Jeong, S. M. (2014). Meaning in Life and School Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effects of Problemfocused Coping and Self-acceptance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 777-781.

Denckla, M.B. (2003). ADHD: Topic update. Brain and Development children Assessment, 5, 26-215.

Dennis, J.P. and Vander Wal, J.S. (2010). The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Journal of cognition therapy research, 34, 53-241.

Diener, E. E., Sun, M., Lucas, R. E. and Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S.(1985)the satisfaction   with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment,49.71-75

Diener, E., Sah, E. M. (1985). Saving quality of life. Journal of economic, social and subjective judicators, 4, 189-216.

Doğan, T., Sapmaz, F., Dilek Tel, F., Sapmaz, S.  and Temizel, S. (2012). Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being among Turkish University Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 55, 612-617.

Elkins, D. N., Hedstrom, L. J., Hughes, L. L., Leaf, J. A. and Saunders, C. (1988). Towards a humanistic phenomenological spirituality: Definition, description and measurement. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28, 5-18.

Fahlman,A.SH., Mercer,K.B., Gaskovski,P., Eastwood, A. E., Eastwood, J. D. (2009). Does a Lack of Life Meaning Cause Boredom? Results from Psychometric, Longitudinal, and Experimental Analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28) 3): 307-340.

Farach, F. J., Mennin, D. S., Smith, R. L. and Mandelbaum, M. (2008). The Impact of Pretrauma Analogue GAD and Posttraumatic Emotional Reactivity Following Exposure to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Longitudinal Study. Behavior Therapy, 39(3): 262-276. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2007.08.005.

Fledderus, M., Bohlmeijer, E. T. and Pieterse, M. E. (2010). Does experiential avoidance mediate the effects of maladaptive coping styles on psychopathology and mental health? .Behav Modif, 34(6): 503-519. doi: 10.1177/0145445510378379.

Fordyce, M. W. (1977).The Happiness Measure: A Sixty Second Index Of Emotional Well. Being and Mental Health, USA: Edison Community Press.

Frankl, V.E. (1984). Man’s search for meaning (3rded.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gan, Y., Liu, Y. and Zhang, Y. (2004). Flexible coping responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related and daily life stressful events. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7, 55–66.

Ghobari Bonab, B., Mutualipour, A., Hakimi Rad, E. and Habibi Askar Abadi, M. (2009). Relationship between Anxiety and Depression with Spirituality in Tehran University Students. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3 (2):110- 123 (Text  in Persian).

Gholami, M., Pasha, GR. and Sudan, M. (2009). The effectiveness of group therapy Bramyd meaning to life and the general health of female patients with thalassemia. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan. 42, 25-45 (Text in Persian).

Gruber, J. (2005), Religious Market Structure, Religious Participation, and Outcomes: Is Religion Good for You?. Advances in Economic Analysis & Policy, 5(1):1454-1454 DOI: 10.2202/1538-0637.1454 NBER Working Paper, no.11377.

Hadian Far, H. (2005). Mental feeling of welfare and religious activities in a group of Muslims, Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology of Iran (Thought and Behavior), 11, 224-232 (Text in Persian).

Haglund, M. E. M., Nestadt, P. S., Cooper, N. S., Southwick, S. M., and Charney, D. S. (2007). Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience: Relevance to prevention and treatment of stressrelated psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 889–920.

Hahn, E., Johnson, W. and Spinath, F. M. (2013). Beyond the heritability of life satisfaction–The roles of personality and twin-specific influences. Journal of Research in Personality47(6): 757-767.

Harris, A. H. and Standard, S. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Life Regard Index–Revised: A validation study of a measure of personal meaning. Psychological Reports89(3): 759-773.

Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A. and Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour research and therapy, 44(1): 1-25. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006.

Jowkar, B. (2007). The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between general and emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY , 2 (4): 3- 12. 

Kapteyn,A,. Smith,J.P. and van Soest ,A.(2009( .Work disability, work, and justification bias in Europe and the US(No. w15245). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Keshavarz, A., Mehrabi, H.A., Soltanizadeh, M. (2009). Psychological Predictors of Life Satisfaction. Evolutionary Psychology, 22,159-168 (Text in Persian).

King, L. A., Hicks, J. A., Krull, J. L., & Del Gaiso, A. K. (2006). Positive affect and the experience of meaning in life. Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1): 179-196.

Krause, N. (2003). Religious Meaning and Subjective Well-Being in Late Life. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58(3), 160-170.

Lelkes, O. (2006). Tasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.  Journal_ of Economic Behavior and Organization ,59, 173-194.

MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Spiritual identity: Individual perspective. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx and V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research  (pp. 531-544). New York: Springer.

Maltby, J., Day, L., McCutcheon, L. E., Gillett, R., Houran, J. and Ashe, D. D. (2004). Personality and coping: A context for examining celebrity worship and mental health. British Journal of Psychology95(4), 411-428.

Marashi, S. A., Mehrabian, T. and Muslim, M. (2016). The Relationship between Personality Characteristics and Spiritual Intelligence with Life Satisfaction in Employees of an Industrial Company in Ilam. Journal of Military Sciences, 3 (1), 48-55 (Text in Persian).

Maslo, A, H. (1970). Religion, values, and peak experiences. New York: Viking Press.

Mehmood, T., Shaukat, M. (2014). Life satisfaction and psychological well-being among young adult female university students. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2(5): 53-143.

 Myers, D. G. (2000). The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People.  American Psychologist, 55(1) 56-67.

Myers, D. G. and Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy?. Psychological science6(1), 10-19.

Nasiri, H., Jokar, B. (2008). Significance of life, hope, life satisfaction and mental health in women, Journal of Women's Research, 6 (2), 157-176 (text in Persian).

Nazoktabar, H., Hosseini, S.Z., Babaee, E. (2016). An Analysis of the Relationship between Spiritual Health, Attitudes toward Marriage Relationships and Marital Engagement of Married Women. Quarterly Journal of womens studies sociological and psychological,14 (3), 93-114 (Text in Persian).

Pavot, W. & E. Dienner and E. Suh (1998).The Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70, pp.340-354.

Pavot, W. and E. Dienner (1993). The Affective and Cognitive Context of Self-Reported Measures of Subjective Well-Being.  Social Indicators Research, 28, 1-20.

Phillips, E.L. (2011). Resilience, mental flexibility and cortisol response to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in unemployed men. Michigan: the University of Michigan.

Salariyah, S., Roshan, R., and Moghadasin, M. (2016). Five major factors of personality and defense mechanisms in predicting the quality of life of women with sexual dysfunction. behavioral and cognitive science research, 5 (1): 50-37 (Text in Persian).

Sawatzky, R.; P. A. Ratner and L. Chiu (2005). A Metaanalysis of Relationship between Spirituality and Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 72, 153-188.

Shakerinia, I. (2009). Relationship and significant between social capital and mental health and life of spouse abused women. Women and Health, 1(2):47-66. (Text in Persian).

Fahlman,A.SH., Mercer,K.B., Gaskovski,P., Eastwood, A. E., Eastwood, J. D. (2009). Does a Lack of Life Meaning Cause Boredom? Results from Psychometric, Longitudinal, and Experimental Analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28) 3): 307-340.

Shi, M., Wang, X., Bian, Y. and Wang, L. (2015). The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study. BMC medical education, 15(1), 16.

Soydemir, G. A., Bastida, E and Gonzalez,G. (2004). The Impact of Religiosity on Self Assessments of Health and Happiness: Evidence from the U.S. Southwest. Applied Economics, 36, 665-672.

Stark, R., & Glock, C. Y. (1965). The" New Denominationalism". Review of religious research, 7(1): 8-17.

Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S. & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of counseling psychology, 53(1): 80.

Swinyard, W. R., Kau, A. K and Phua, H.Y. (2001). Happiness, Materialism, and Religious Experience in the U.S. and Singapore. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 13-32.

Westin, V., Hayes, S. C. and Andersson, G. (2008). Is it the sound or your relationship to it? The role of acceptance in predicting tinnitus impact. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(12): 1259-1265. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.08.008

Zare, B., Safiari Jafarabad, H. (2015). A Study on the Relationship between Factors Affecting Marital Satisfaction Satisfaction among Married Women and Men in Tehran. Journal of Social Psychological Studies in Women, 13 (1): 140-111 (Text in Persian).

Zong, J. G., Cao, X. Y., Cao, Y., Shi, Y. F., Wang, Y. N. and Yan, C. (2010). Coping flexibility in college students with depressive symptoms. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8 (66), 1-6.

Zulling, K. J., Ward, R. M. and Horn, T. (2006). The Association between Perceived Spirituality, Religiosity and Life Satisfaction: the Mediating Role of Self-Rated Health. Social Indicators Research, 79, 255-274.